Postingan ini adalah untuk menjawab permintaan populer *ceile* akan contoh riset proposal buat monbusho dulu. Latar belakangnya adalah postingan ini yang menarik banyak pengunjung buat nulis imel minta contoh. Berhubung gw suka lupa bales imel, kenapa gak diposting disini aja ya? Tadinya alasannya adalah karna fobia plagiarisme. Tapi oh well, gw udah lolos defense disertasi doktoral dengan tema ini, jadi gw skarang bisa meng-klaim hasil karya gw. Jadi kalo ada yang mo plagiat, bisa dituntut secara hukum dongg.. *ngancem tingkat dewa!
Sebenernya malu siiih mostingnya, ketauan betapa culunnya gw dulu hahaha. Tapi bodo ah, udah 7 taon lalu gituloh, siapa juga yang gak culun 7 taon lalu. Oh iya, perlu nulis ulang DISCLAIMER nih:
Gw memegang seluruh hak intelektual dari tulisan2 yang bersifat akademik dalam blog ini. Sebagai bagian dari kaum akademisi, gw sangat menentang plagiarisme alias contek mencontek. Kalo mau make sebagian ato seluruh bagian tulisan ini, plis kontak gw dulu lewat komen di sini. Tulisan ini belom pernah dipublikasiin meskipun pernah di-submit sebagai bagian dari persyaratan beasiswa, jadi ga bisa dipake sebagai referensi. Jangan lupa, tulisan ini dibuat tahun 2006, jadi sudah tua dan outdated (=ketinggalan jaman).
Selamat membaca dan terinspirasi. *narsis 😛
Field of Study
In general, city planning is an interesting process, not only from the preliminary idea until the decision making, but also in its implementation. One issue that needs our attention at the present time is environmental issue in planning the city. In most cases in Indonesia, the environmental effects of development is put aside and considered as merely secondary problem, while in fact, the decreasing environment quality creates more problems for the city. Yet, as the decreasing environment quality becomes more apparent, there is a need to be more concern about environmental issue in planning the city.
Since environmental issues have broad meaning, I choose to make it specific to solid waste management. It is because big number of population in Indonesia has generated enormous amount of solid waste, while there has not been a settle system that can manage the solid waste nor reduce its number. In fact, solid waste management becomes a problem that can lead to a human-caused disaster in Indonesia, like the case of landslide caused by solid waste piles in Bandung Area.
According to World Bank report, Indonesia, as well as the Philippines, China and India, are the Asian countries facing the greatest waste management challenge, based on projected waste generation rates and relative affluence to deal with the problem (1). In contrast to that fact, development of waste management systems sadly lags behind the realities of a quickly changing waste stream. However, governments are realizing that they can not handle waste management alone. To respond to the call, many progressive companies are working as equal partners with governments in developing comprehensive waste management program.
One important thing that is often forgotten along those processes is community involvement, although actually, global environmental problems have the greatest impacts at the level of a community, not at the global level. It is the nature of community’s activities that places them as the first group who struggle with the impacts. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the role of community as an important element in the success of local environmental management. The general community must also be involved and actively participate in managing wastes by starting to change their behaviors towards waste management. For example, communities need to learn to be more discipline in separating waste, using containers in beneficial way, and exercising environmentally friendly purchasing habits (2).
Recently, the importance of communities in environmental management area is growing. However, not every country seems to realize this fact and then put community involvement into consideration. Besides economic aspect, involving community in development areas also depends on the culture of the country. In Japan case, the decade of 1990’s is probably the changing point to this matter. During 1990’s, many communities were under pressure to come up with solutions to their sustainable development problems in order to overcome the severe situation that they faces (3). Even though the problems and changes have not yet been fully overcome, they serve as a rich source of lesson for future studies.
Currently, there are many active initiatives for environmental management carried out by local governments in Japan. Mostly, the initiatives emphasize on the importance of public participation. They focus on citizen’s empowerment, and make sure that citizen can take actions or participate in the policy making and implementation processes on their own. This is a bit different with what happened in Indonesia, whereas in most cases, community participation in development area rarely touches the community itself.
This research is mainly about studying community involvement in solid waste management. It is aimed to draw some learning points form successful cases that happened in Japan in managing its wastes, specifically solid wastes, with involvement of local communities. However, every community is different in terms of their surrounding environment and conditions, as well as its natural, geographical, social and historical backgrounds. Yet, when studying successful cases, common elements can be observed, and enables transferability of knowledge to other communities. It is hoped that by doing research from successful study case in Japan, we can draw some learning points that is useful for Indonesia in the field of solid waste management that are initiated by communities.
Study Program in Japan in Detail
As mentioned before, this research is aimed to draw some learning points form successful cases that happened in Japan in managing its wastes, specifically solid wastes, with involvement of local communities. In details, the objectives of this study are:
- To define the concept of community involvement in solid waste management in general, as well as in successful study cases in Japan
- To identify in which part of solid waste management the community itself is being involved
- To study the implementation of community involvement in solid waste management in successful study case in Japan
- To draw the learning points from study cases for possibility of concept implementation in Indonesia. It is essential to analyze very carefully what part is applicable to match Indonesian characteristic and what could be the element that can be transferred to communities in Indonesia. Included in this part is identification of driving-success factors, strength and weaknesses of concept and its implementation in successful study cases in Japan, and the most important thing is identification of the learning points.
Theoretical aspect that is going to be the basis of this research is mainly related to community involvement in solid waste management. Thus, there will be extensive document research on the following topics:
- Concept of Community (community in general, community and innovativeness: a concept that is developed by UNU-UNEP)
- Environmental Issue: Solid Waste Management (what and why, solid waste management in general)
- Community in Solid Waste Management (the possibilities, bridging the concept -community and solid waste management: how?)
The methodology that is used for this research varies from documents research until the usage of case study. For documents research, the data collection and analysis methods will be in form of reviewing secondary literature and other relevant reference materials, including websites and meeting/conferences summary report. In addition, domestic and international networks of local governments and NGOs in Japan, and individual institutions that are involved in research subject are in possibility of being contacted for further collection of case examples. For study cases, I am planning to choose one area in Japan as my study case, as I found out about adoption of an Innovative Community project in environmental subjects in Japan. This concept of innovative community matches my interest, as it fosters innovativeness of communities and highlights the community dimension within the overall orbit of environmental management. As far as I know, there are 3 cities in Japan that adopt this concept in their environmental management issue. The cities are Minamata City (the concept known as Jimotogaku Concept), Nagoya City (the concept is adopted in Solid Waste Reduction through innovative management methods), and Nishinomiya City (the concept is adopted in Community Building through city-wide environmental education project). However, as I only have limited information on each area, I prefer to do the research in Nagoya City, as the concept is implemented in subject that is closest to solid waste management. However, this study case may be changed due to additional information that might lead this research to more suitable study case. The learning focus on study case is stressed on the adoption of innovative community concept (why and how). Based on case study analysis, a basic framework of community involvement can be recognized and learned.
To fulfill the systematic aspect of a research, this research will be reported/written in 5 chapters. The first one is Introduction chapter, consists of research background, problem formulation, objectives, research area (selected study case and research main frame), and research methodology in details. The second one chapter consists of summary of documents/literature review that is related to this research subject. The third chapter consists of the story of study case in details, including about community description in that geographical area and how community is involved in managing their solid waste. The fourth chapter will be the main point of research that will answer the objectives of this research. And the last chapter will be the conclusion of this research. It also will include the strength and weaknesses (what to improve?) and about implementation in other areas (condition and possibilities)
(1) What a Waste: Solid Waste Management in Asia. Urban Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, the World Bank. May 1999.
(3) Summary Report: 1st Expert Workshop on UNU-UNEP Innovative Communities Initiative,. UNU/GEIC & UNEP/IETC. 30 July 2002.